Connecting to the SharePoint 2013 REST API from C#

Today I was updating an internal application we use for grabbing lots of Terminology data from SharePoint lists, and exporting it as TBX files for import into CAT tools etc.

This was required as the SharePoint on which it was hosted previously was upgraded from 2010 to 2013.

A small job I thought.

Then I discovered the the ASMX Web Service in SharePoint I used to grab the data previously, are deprecated in SharePoint 2013, probably not a surprise to anyone in the know, but SharePoint happens to be one of my pet hates, so development of it is not something that I tend to keep up to date with.

Anyway, I had to re-jig our application to use the SharePoint REST API, and I thought I’d provide the code here for connecting, as it look a little bit of figuring out.

The below (after you fill in your SharePoint URL, username, password, domain, and name of the list you want to extract data from), will connect and pull back the list contents to an XmlDocument object that you can parse.

XmlNamespaceManager xmlnspm = new XmlNamespaceManager(new NameTable());
Uri sharepointUrl = new Uri("SHAREPOINT URL);

xmlnspm.AddNamespace("atom", "");
xmlnspm.AddNamespace("d", "");
xmlnspm.AddNamespace("m", "");

NetworkCredential cred = new System.Net.NetworkCredential("USERNAME", "PASSWORD", "DOMAIN");

HttpWebRequest listRequest = (HttpWebRequest)HttpWebRequest.Create(sharepointUrl.ToString() + "_api/lists/getByTitle('" + "LIST NAME" + "')/items");
listRequest.Method = "GET";
listRequest.Accept = "application/atom+xml";
listRequest.ContentType = "application/atom+xml;type=entry";

listRequest.Credentials = cred;
HttpWebResponse listResponse = (HttpWebResponse)listRequest.GetResponse();
StreamReader listReader = new StreamReader(listResponse.GetResponseStream());
XmlDocument listXml = new XmlDocument();


Localization of Email Campaign Content From Eloqua

Eloqua is a marketing automation platform, allowing marketers to easily create campaigns consisting of emails, landing pages, social media etc. via its ‘campaign canvas’.

Campaigns can be created via a WYSIWYG interface, allowing you to visualize marketing campaigns easily as you build them. It also integrates with CRM tools, automatically passing any lead data generated onto your sales staff.

My interest in Eloqua, and specifically its API, relates to the localization of email campaign content. This can be achieved manually by exporting the created email (as a standalone HTML file), then re-importing the localized versions post translation, creating a new version of the original, one for each language you have localized for.

Manual exporting of email content for localization is of course a perfectly valid approach, but the more languages you have, the more manual steps in this process, and the longer it takes, potentially tying up a resource.

The Eloqua REST API can be used to easily reduce the transactional costs related to localization of email campaign content. Using the API, you can quite easily automate the extraction of email content, and potentially send this content directly to your Translation Management System (TMS) such as GlobalSight or WorldServer, or straight to a translation vendor in the absence of a TMS.

The API documentation is pretty good. I also came across this samples project on GitHub released under the Apache license which I was able to use to knock up a proof of concept pretty quickly. It’s written in C# and includes functions to manipulate most asset types in Eloqua.

The email sample code in this library illustrates how to create, edit, and delete emails in Eloqua via the REST API. For example, it’s this easy to grab an Object that represents an email in Eloqua:

EmailClient client = new EmailClient(EloquaInstance, 
                         EloquaUsername, EloquaPassword, 

     Email email = client.GetEmail(emailID);
     return email;
 catch (Exception ex)
     // Handle Error...

Some notes:

  • When retrieving the Email Object which represents an email in Eloqua, you need to specify the ID of the email in Eloqua. For automating the localization process, it could be difficult to determine this without user input. What I plan on doing is providing a nice UI so that users see only the emails that they have created in Eloqua (i.e. not all emails created ever), and can click on one and submit it for translation in one click.
  • The Email Object also contains other useful metadata like when the content was created, when it was last updated and by whom, the encoding, and the folder in which this email resides in Eloqua, useful for when you want to upload the localized versions.

So, that’s how easy it is to automate the retrieval of email content from Eloqua. The library I referenced also has support for other asset types like landing pages etc.

Next I plan on using ASP.NET Web API to turn this library into a HTTP service I can use to talk to Eloqua from other applications, such as the application that manages content submission/retrieval from our TMS.

GlobalSight Web Services API: Manipulating Workflows Programmatically

This is part four of my series of posts on the GlobalSight Web Services API. See below for the previous posts:

Here, I’d like to cover how you can manipulate workflows in GlobalSight via the API. For example, dispatching a workflow, accepting tasks in a workflow, or completing or moving workflows on to the next step.

This can be useful if you want to automate specific steps, or if you want to use an interface other than GlobalSight when dealing with workflows.

There are a couple of relevant functions that are pre-requisites when dealing with workflows programmatically:

  • getJobAndWorkflowInfo – This returns details about workflows in a particular job. The ID of the job in question is passed as a parameter to this function. This will return an XML response, detailing as well as the workflow information, some basic information about the job. We need this to get the ID of the workflow which we want to work with, within a particular job.
  • getAcceptedTasksInWorkflow – This will return the task information for a workflow, given the workflow ID (which we would have got from getJobAndWorkflowInfo). With the XML response here, we’ll be able to search for specific tasks in a workflow, and get the task ID – this is what is required in order to manipulate specific tasks in a workflow.

From the above, (I leave the parsing of the XML response as an exercise to the reader), we can begin to perform workflow tasks by using the task ID.

// Accept task
string acceptTask = client.acceptTask(auth, "63781");
Console.WriteLine("Accept Task Response: " + acceptTask);

// Send this worfklow to the 'Write to TM' step
string completeTask = client.completeTask(auth, "63781", "Write to TM");
Console.WriteLine("\n\nComplete Task Response: " + completeTask);

The above is a very simple example of accepting a particular task in a workflow (using the workflow ID), and sending it to the next step in the workflow via ‘Write to TM’.

Write to TM‘ here is the actual text on the arrow in the workflow diagram. I found this syntax strange, but it seems to work.


It should be noted that the user under which you are logged into the web service with must be on the list of those allowed to accept the task you are trying to accept, you will receive an error otherwise.

The GlobalSight Web Services API documentation has much more information the the types of actions you can perform on workflows, but the above should get you started.

GlobalSight Web Services API: Job Creation

This is the third in my series of posts on the GlobalSight Web Services API. See below for the previous posts:

In this post, I’m going to cover how to actually create jobs in the GlobalSight system via the Web Services API. Creating jobs via the user interface works fine, but if you want to automate the process, this is fully supported via the API. This can be useful if for example you wanted to create a better experience for creating jobs, or a totally different interface – useful if you have people not experienced with GlobalSight who may want to submit content translation or review jobs.

I’ll assume you’re all setup to interact with the API from C# (see the first post above for a basic introduction if you are not).

There are a couple of API calls relevant to job creation:

  • getFileProfileInfo – This returns the list of File Profiles currently available in the system. The response is XML format, listing all File Profiles available in the system, each having an ID, Name and Description. The File Profile is a required parmeter to both the uploadFile and createJob functions.
  • uploadFile – This facilitates upload of a single file to GlobalSight (note it does not actually create a job). This needs to be called once per file.
  • getUniqueJobName – This function essentially takes a job name, and adds a nine digit unique ID to the name. Each job in GlobalSight must have a unique name. If you already have some unique identifier in your job name, you will not need to call this function, but otherwise it is useful for ensuring that there aren’t any clashes between job names.
  • createJob – This is the function that actually creates the job in GlobalSight.

Let’s look at some simple code for job creation using the above listed functions.

			GS_API.AmbassadorService client = new GS_API.AmbassadorService();

			string jobName = "Demo Job (Ignore)";
			string textFilePath = @"C:\Users\Jimmy\Desktop\strings.txt";
			string fileProfileID = "37";
			byte[] fileContents = System.IO.File.ReadAllBytes(textFilePath);

			// Authenticate
			string auth = client.login("TestUser1", "password");

			// Here you would get the file profiles, and find the apt. one for this job
			// I'll leave this to the reader as an exercise, I've assigned a variable above

			// Next, lets ensure uniqueness of our job name
			string uniqueJobName = client.getUniqueJobName(auth, jobName);

			// Upload the file
			client.uploadFile(auth, uniqueJobName, "/files/strings.txt", fileProfileID, fileContents);

			// Create the Job - ensure to use the same job name as your call the uploadFile
			client.createJob(auth, uniqueJobName, "Demo Job", "/files/strings.txt", fileProfileID, "");

A couple of points to note:

  • Each file you upload needs to be converted to a byte array. C# provides the handy function I’ve used above for this purpose.
  • The third parameter to uploadFile, (in this case ‘files/strings.txt‘), is the location to upload the file on the GlobalSight server. There are a few folders created by default for any job, the language code, ‘webservice‘ which indicates the files were uploaded via the API, and a folder named after the job ID. The parameter above is the directory structure inside the job ID folder, this is whatever you want it to be. This is useful, as the files are exported in that same structure post translation, so you can for example retain the directory structure of a translation kit if you so wish. Here’s an example of how the file we uploaded above is stored on the GlobalSight server:



  • The job name you pass to createJob, must be identical to the one you passed to uploadFile. This is how GlobalSight knows which files relate to this job.
  • The final parameter in createJob is the target languages. Leave this empty (as I have above) and GlobalSight will assign all the languages contained in the Localization Profile that is associated with the File Profile you have specified.

That’s it, after you have run the above code, your job is now created in GlobalSight.

This was a very basic introduction to job creation in GlobalSight, showing how a single file can be submitted via the web services API.

I haven’t covered items such as error handling, or even creating jobs that have multiple files, not just one as in my simple example above – I will perhaps cover this in a future post.

GlobalSight Web Services API: Automate Translation Memory Upload

This is the second in my series of posts on the GlobalSight Web Services API. For a brief introduction, and the steps to get setup using the API from C#, see my previous post.

Translation Memories, in TMX format, can take a long time to upload to GlobalSight via the user interface, especially if you have a lot of large ones.

This can be quiet easily automated (and run overnight for example) via the GlobalSight Web Services API.

First, you need to call uploadTmxFile, which just uploads the TMX file to the GlobalSight server, then call importTmxFile, which does the actual import to the system:

GS_API.AmbassadorService client = new GS_API.AmbassadorService();

string demoTmxLocation = @"C:\TMX\demo.tmx";
string tmName = "Main";

// Authenticate
string auth = client.login("TestUser1", "password");

// We need to convert the TMX file to a byte array
byte[] tmxAsBytes = System.IO.File.ReadAllBytes(demoTmxLocation);

// Next, upload the TMX
client.uploadTmxFile(auth, "demo.tmx", tmName, tmxAsBytes);

// Finally, import the TMX
// The final parameter here can be merge, overwrite, or discard
client.importTmxFile(auth, tmName, "merge");

We found this to be up to 25 times faster than uploading TMX files via the user interface, outside of the obvious benefit of not tying a resource up uploading TMX files for a few days.

Next up, I’ll outline how to create translation/review jobs in GlobalSight using the API.

Interacting with the GlobalSight Web Services API from C#

GlobalSight is an open source Globalization Management System (GMS). It’s main purpose is to automate the flow of content to translators, and essentially streamline many of the tasks involved in the translation workflow, scoping, project management, translation, review etc. as well as centralizing translation memories.

Similar GMS systems would be SDL WorldServer (formally Idiom WorldServer before being acquired by SDL in 2008), and SDL TMS.

What differentiates GlobalSight (owned by WeLocalize), is that it is open source. The source code is freely available. It can be customized as you see fit. It also provides a very powerful web services API, that you can use to integrate other systems in your translation workflow with GlobalSight, that’s what I want to introduce here, specifically the steps to get setup from C# to interact with this API.

I’m going to assume you already have an instance of GlobalSight setup, I’d imagine you wouldn’t be interested in this API otherwise.

Setup Steps

  • First off, create a new C# Visual Studio project, a console application will suffice for this tutorial.
  • Next, we need to add a Service Reference to the API. To do this, follow the steps here, using the following URL:


Note – The service is called ‘AmbassadorWebService‘ because GlobalSight itself was previously called Ambassador, when it was owned by a company called GlobalSight. The product was renamed GlobalSight after it was taken over by WeLocalize. If you get to the point where you are looking at the (rather large) code base, you will see it littered with references to Ambassador.

  • Once you successfully add the service reference, try to build your project – you will notice it will fail (at time of writing at least anyway):

CaptureThere are duplicate entries in Reference.cs for these two functions, getAttributesByJobId and getProjectIdByFileProfileId.

To fix this issue, just double click on each of the above errors, and comment out the duplicate entries in Reference.cs. This will allow your project to build, but is a pain, as you need to do it each time you update your service reference.

Now that your project successfully builds, you are ready to use the API.


Before trying to authenticate with the web service, you may need to do some manual configuration on your GlobalSight instance. The IP Filter feature is enabled by default – this will only allow IP’s on a white list to interact with GlobalSight via the API. There are two options here:

  • Disable the IP filter completely – not recommended.
  • Add the necessary IP ranges to the white list.

See the ‘IP Filter’ section of the web services documentation for more information on this.

Once you complete the above, we should be able to connect to the API via some C# code.

Before calling any operations, the login function must be called with a valid GlobalSight account. This function returns an authentication token which must then be passed as a parameter to all subsequent API calls.

Let’s connect, and call a simple function, getAllUsers, that will give us the list of all user currently in the system, and write it out to the console so that we can see the response:

GS_API.AmbassadorService client = new GS_API.AmbassadorService();

string auth = client.login("TestUser1", "password");
string userinfo = client.getAllUsers(auth);

If you have done everything correctly, you will see an XML response in your console window detailing all the users currently setup in the system. Most API calls to retrieve information return an XML response, it’s just a matter of parsing it, and doing whatever you want with it then.


Here are my feelings so far, having used this API for the past 3 months to automate different tasks:

  • You can’t rely on the documentation on the Wiki – some function definitions are out of date, some now have extra parameters etc. There is not enough information in the documentation about what each call actually returns (i.e. the format of the XML). I found myself having to run commands to see what they actually return. The API documentation needs some love.
  • Some API call sequences (e.g. for job creation) are really difficult to figure out, e.g. you need to call uploadFile, then createJob. Again, making this clear in the documentation would be better.
  • Some functions expect paramters in XML format, but no example of this format is give. Documentation!
  • For an open source project, there doesn’t seem to be any community. The forums on are not particularly active, and run some really old forum software that is extremely frustrating to use. Maybe there is a community, and I’m just not aware, but it certainly looks like they don’t hang out at
  • All this aside, the web services API is extremely powerful, and I seriously recommend looking into it if you use GlobalSight – some functions can save you days – e.g. upload of translation memories via the API, as opposed the web interface.

This covered a basic introduction to interacting with the GlobalSight web services API from C#.

In a future post, I’ll cover how to actually create GlobalSight jobs via this API. If there’s anything else you’d like to see covered in a future post, leave a comment below, and I’ll see what I can do.

Interacting with Microsoft Excel from C# using EPPlus – Part 1

I’ve been working on moving the reporting functionality of an existing application from HTML to Microsoft Excel format. I find HTML fine for creating simple reports or sometimes log files from C# applications, but these reports were churning out at around 50MB, which Internet Explorer was having serious problems dealing with. So, I decided to solve this issue by moving all reporting functionality in the application to Microsoft Excel format, which with hindsight I would have done in the original design.

EPPlus is an open source .NET library for reading an writing Excel files. I’ve used this in many projects, and have found it invaluable when the requirement to either read or write Excel files crops up. In this post, I’ll give examples of using EPPlus to write to a Microsoft Excel file.


Create a new C# console application project in Visual Studio. Download the EPPlus binaries from the Downloads section on the EPPlus CodePlex Site.

Extract the files and add EPPlus.dll as a reference to your project.

Writing to Excel

EPPlus writes Excel 2007/2010 files using the Open Office Xml format (xlsx). The first thing to do, after the initial setup has been completed, is to add the following imports to your code:

using OfficeOpenXml;
using OfficeOpenXml.Style;

Next, let’s create a new ExcelPackage and add some properties to it such as the author, title and company:

using (ExcelPackage p = new ExcelPackage())
    p.Workbook.Properties.Author = "Miles Dyson";
    p.Workbook.Properties.Title = "SkyNet Monthly Report";
    p.Workbook.Properties.Company = "Cyberdyne Systems";
    // The rest of our code will go here...


Now we’ll need to create a new worksheet where we will add our data:

    p.Workbook.Worksheets.Add("April 2012");
    ExcelWorksheet ws = p.Workbook.Worksheets[1]; // 1 is the position of the worksheet
    ws.Name = "April 2012";

We’ll be adding some simple data to this worksheet, contained in 3 columns. We might want to add a header to this worksheet with some column names, and some basic formatting, like making the column header background color something different.

This is simple to achieve using EPPlus:

    int rowIndex = 1;
    int colIndex = 1;

        // Set the background colours
        var cell = ws.Cells[rowIndex, colIndex];
        var fill = cell.Style.Fill;
        fill.PatternType = ExcelFillStyle.Solid;
    while (colIndex != 4);

    // Set the cell values
    var cell_actionName = ws.Cells[1, 1];
    var cell_timeTaken = ws.Cells[1, 2];
    var cell_processorsUsed = ws.Cells[1, 3];

    cell_actionName.Value = "Action Name";
    cell_timeTaken.Value = "Time Taken";
    cell_processorUsed.Value = "Processing Unit";

The above two actions will be quite common if you use EPPlus to write to Excel files in a lot of different projects. I’d recommend created a static helper class to perform both of these functions (adding the properties and creating a header), I’ve done this with these and other common functions, and I’ve found it’s saved me some time.

Note that we haven’t actually saved the Excel file yet, it’s in memory but we haven’t saved it to disk. Before we do, let’s add some data to it as well as the header. For the purpose of this example, let’s say we already have the data (wherever it may have come from), defined as a List of hypothetical ProcessorAction Objects.

In order to write the data to the file, we can just iterate over this List and write a new row for each ProcessorAction Object to the Excel file:

    // Get hypothetical data...
    List processorActions = DataAccessHelper.GetProcessorData(DataTime.Now);
    // Column indexes for clarity
    int actionColIndex = 1;
    int timeColIndex = 2;
    int processorColIndex = 3;

    int rowIndex = 2; // Row 1 is the header

    foreach(ProcessorAction p in processorActions)
        // Action
        var actionCell = ws.Cells[rowIndex, actionColIndex];
        actionCell.Value = p.Action;        

        // Time
        var timeCell = ws.Cells[rowIndex, timeColIndex];
        timeCell.Value = p.Time;
        // Processor
        var processorCell = ws.Cells[rowIndex, processorColIndex];
        processorCell.Value = p.Processor;


Now that all our data is written, we want to save the Excel file for distribution:

    // Save the Excel file
     Byte[] bin = p.GetAsByteArray();
     File.WriteAllBytes(@"C:\Reports\Report.xlsx, bin);

Your file should save successfully. That’s the basics of writing to Excel files using EPPlus. In the next post, I’ll outline how to read data contained in an Excel file into memory.

Happy Coding 😉

Interacting with web pages using Selenium WebDriver for C#

I’ve been using Selenium WebDriver for C# a lot lately, for a number of projects that involved interacting with a web browser in some manner. I’ve used a lot of applications and libraries over the past few years that provide this functionality, but I’ve never come across one as intuitive and reliable as Selenium WebDriver – if you work on any projects that involve interacting with a web browser to automate some process, you need to read this post.

In this post I’ll take you through the process of using Selenium WebDriver to automate some interaction with a web browser and hopefully show you how powerful Selenium is. We’ll take a simple scenario as an example – submitting a request to the Google search engine.

Boot up Visual Studio and create a new C# console application. You’ll need to download the Selenim WebDriver for C# ZIP from Google Code, and add the DLL’s it contains as references to your project. For this example, you are only required to add WebDriver.dll and Newtonsoft.Json.Net35.dll. You’ll need to add the following using statements also:

using OpenQA.Selenium;
using OpenQA.Selenium.IE;

Now your ready to write some code that can drive your web browser. First, we’ll need to create the object that can do just that. With Selenium WebDriver, that is an IWebDriver object. This object can be instantiated to control Internet Explorer, Firefox, or Chrome. In this example, I’m going to use Internet Explorer.

IWebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver();

You could also use ChromeDriver or FirefoxDriver above.

Next, let’s navigate to the Google website. The following code will handle this. One of the nice things about Selenium is that this call won’t return until the page is loaded in the browser. Other frameworks and libraries return immediately, requiring you to add waits/sleeps in your code to ensure the page is actually loaded, which is a terrible approach.


Aside – Internet Explorer Problems

One setting has to be changed in Internet Explorer in order for Selenium WebDriver to work correctly. Your security zones need to have protected mode either enabled or disabled – it doesn’t matter which, as long as it’s the same for each zone. I’ve got it set to on for each zone on my machine. To achieve this follow these steps:

  1. Open IE and go to Internet Options.
  2. Go to the ‘Security’ tab.
  3. Click on each of the zones, i.e. ‘Internet’, ‘Local intranet’, ‘Trusted sites’ and ‘Restricted sites’ and ensure that the ‘Enable Protected Mode (requires restarting Internet Explorer)’ check box is checked.

At this point, build your project in Visual Studio and run it. If you have followed the above steps correctly you will see Internet Explorer open, and navigate to Google automatically.

Now to actually interact with the open web page, Google in this case. In order to submit a search term, we’ll need to interact with the search term text box (to enter a search term), and the ‘Google Search’ button (to submit the request).

To do this, we’ll need to look at the source code for the page, to find the information we’ll need to interact with these controls. From looking at the source code, we can see that the markup for these controls looks like the following (formatted and commented for clarity):

Google Search

So, lets define the search term text box, and enter a search search:

IWebElement searchTermTB = driver.FindElement(By.Name("q"));
searchTermTB.SendKeys("jimmy collins blog");

Take note of what we’re doing here – we’re using the browser object we defined earlier to find an element with the name ‘q’. This is another great thing about Selenium – we can use just about any element attribute to try to find it, you could also use the ID, class name, tag name, or even the XPATH to find an element on the page.

Now build and run your application – you will once again see Internet Explorer opening up, but this time you’ll also see the search term being entered.

The final step is to actually click the ‘Google Search’ button and submit the query. The same approach that we used to find and interact the search term text box is followed:

IWebElement searchBtn = driver.FindElement(By.Name("btnG"));

Running your application now will open up Google, enter your search term, and hit the search button. The final thing to do is some cleanup – you will notice that currently when your application runs, the browser is left open once it completes. All we have to do to close the browser is:


That’s how easy Selenium is to use. The ideal scenario is that you have interaction with your development team, and get them to agree to providing static IDs on all controls, that don’t change between versions of your site (unless in the case of a substantial UI revamp). That would make it a simple task to provide re-usable automation that can automatically verify changes to your site, or be used for regression testing.

Java Needs Automatic Properties

One of my main grievances with the Java programming language is it’s lack of Automatic Properties. These have existed in C# since .NET 3.0.

Automatic Properties make property-declaration more concise when no additional logic is required in the property accessors. For example, let’s say we want to implement a simple Book abstraction in an application, with four simple properties for arguments sake.

This is how it may look in C#:

public class Book
    public string Name { get; set; }

    public string Author { get; set; }

    public string ISBN { get; set; }

    public string Genre { get; set; }

Nice and simple, and written in about 1 minute when coupled with Visual Studio’s intellisense etc.

Now, lets take a look at a class offering the same basic functionality in Java:

public class Book 
    public String Name;
    public String Author;
    public String ISBN;
    public String Genre;
    public void setName(String name)
        Name = name;
    public String getName()
        return Name;
    public void setAuthor(String author)
        Author = author;
    public String getAuthor()
        return Author;
    public void setISBN(String isbn)
        ISBN = isbn;
    public String getISBN()
        return ISBN;
    public void setGenre(String genre)
        Genre = genre;
    public String getGenre()
        return Genre;

Just on a lines of code basis, it’s easy to see that C# wins overall. I understand that the designers of Java may not want to add this functionality to the language due to potentially breaking millions of current Java applications – but I’m sure it could be added in such a way that new applications could use it without breaking legacy applications.

Hell, a third party library, Project Lombok, already provides support for using Automatic Properties in Java, so it’s definitely possible.

I find this limitation really frustrating when working with Java.

Taking screenshots with Selenium WebDriver

Time to do something a bit more useful using Selenium WebDriver. Taking screenshots as we cycle through our web pages has obvious advantages for unit testing. Firstly we can just run an application overnight, have it visit every page on our website, and review the screenshots for obvious bugs the next morning before releasing to QA. Secondly, we can screenshot our localized websites, and have them linguistically reviewed, or hand off the English screenshots to our translators to provide context during the translation process.

Taking screenshots with WebDriver is exceptionally easy. The thing I like about it most, is that it takes a screenshot of just the area of the browser in which the content resides – no IE/FF/Chrome toolbars etc. But, it also takes the entire webpage – even content not visible on the screen at that time. This is a great feature. I’ve had the problem in the past with long web pages, ones for example that contain a EULA or other long document, where the screenshots had to be taken at intervals as the page scrolled. Obviously not the best process, and not very reusable code.

As mentioned in a previous post, I’m using the Selenium Client Driver for C#. I’ve created a library into which I’m adding useful functions like taking screenshots etc.

The code to take a screenshot is not complex:

using OpenQA.Selenium.IE;
using OpenQA.Selenium;
using System.Drawing.Imaging;

public void TakeScreenshot(IWebDriver driver, string saveLocation)
    ITakesScreenshot screenshotDriver = driver as ITakesScreenshot;
    Screenshot screenshot = screenshotDriver.GetScreenshot();
    screenshot.SaveAsFile(saveLocation, ImageFormat.Png);

The libraries referenced can be found in the Selenium Client Driver for C# package which can be downloaded from the Selenium website. These will need to be added to your C# project.

Notice in the above function we pass an ‘IWebDriver’ Object, as opposed to a specific InternetExplorerDriver, FirefoxDriver etc. This means this function can be used regardless of which browser you are dealing with.

Using the function is also a trival matter. Let’s browse to Google and take a screenshot, saving it in the root of the ‘C:\’ drive:

IWebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver();
TakeScreenshot(driver, @"C:\screenshot.png");

Note that the TakeScreenshot function can be customized to use any image format – in fact it should probably be a function parameter. I chose PNG simply because of the small size of the generated image.

Running Selenium Tests with C# & NUnit

Something I’m working on currently requires some automation of a web browser, so what a perfect opportunity to get some exposure to Selenium.

In this post I’ll outline the basics of creating and running a simple Selenium test using Selenium and NUnit. The implementation language will be C#. To get started, you will need to download the following:

Extract the Selenium Client Driver files, these DLL’s will be referenced in the Visual Studio project we create. Install NUnit using the .msi installer.

Now, let’s create the actual test:

  1. Launch Visual Studio 2010 and create a new class library project.
  2. Add a reference to nunit.framework.dll. This can be found under the NUnit installation directory at ‘bin\net-2.0\framework’.
  3. Add references to all the DLL’s contained in the Selenium Client Driver package you downloaded earlier.
  4. We’re now ready to add the code that will run a Selenium test. Add the following code to your class library project:
using NUnit.Framework;
using OpenQA.Selenium;
using OpenQA.Selenium.IE;

namespace FirstSeleniumTest
    public class SeleniumTest
        private IWebDriver driver;

        public void SetUp()
            driver = new InternetExplorerDriver();

        public void TestGoogle()

        public void TearDown()

The above code should be pretty easy to understand. Notice the annotations around the functions.

  • [SetUp] – This is where any test setup should be completed. In the above example we’re creating a new instance of InternetExplorerDriver, setting it up for our test to run later.
  • [Test] – This is where the test steps are defined. In this example, we’re just navigating to Google.
  • [TearDown] – In this section, any steps to be taken to cleanup the environment after your test has run can be defined. Here, all we’ll do is close Internet Explorer

Now that we have written a simple test, let’s try running it using NUnit. Before moving on, ensure that the above code builds successfully in your environment.

To run the test it’s just a matter of launching NUnit and opening up the DLL built from the Visual Studio project created above. You should see the ‘TestGoogle’ test listed. Simply select the test and hit the ‘Run’ button to initiate the test. You will see Internet Explorer launch, and then close.


One thing you may need to do, depending on your IE version, is to disable protected mode for Internet and Restricted Zones in Internet Explorer Security Settings (don’t forget to re-enable these once you’ve finished experimenting with Selenium).

In a future post, I’ll outline how to do more complex tasks during your tests such as taking screenshots and navigating around web pages under tests.

Refactoring horrible nested if-else statements

I wrote this at some point this week, I was looking back at it tonight and released how truly awful it looks:

    return true;
    return false;
else if(filePath.Contains(".JS"))
    return true;
    return false;
else if(filePath.Contains("_STR"))
    return true;
    return false;
else if(filePath.Contains(".VBS"))
    return true;
    return false;
else if(filePath.Contains(".HTM"))
    return true;
    return false;
else if(filePath.Contains(".BMP"))
    return true;
    return false;
else if(filePath.Contains("GIF"))
    return true;
    return false;

Terrible huh? What was I thinking?

How much better does this look:

bool copyFile;

copyFile = (filePath.Contains(".CSS"))      ? true:
               (filePath.Contains(".JS"))   ? true:
               (filePath.Contains("_STR"))  ? true:
               (filePath.Contains(".VBS"))  ? true:
               (filePath.Contains(".HTM"))  ? true:
               (filePath.Contains(".BMP"))  ? true:
               (filePath.Contains("GIF"))   ? true:
return copyFile;

I like it, impressed with that one for a Friday.

Handling Exceptions on Windows Phone 7

In this post I’ll outline how to deal with exceptions in a Windows Phone 7 application. Ideally when an exception happens, we want to display some meaningful information to the user that can be provided to the developer to aid in the debugging of the issue. The worst thing that can happen is for the application to crash and just exit. This can lead to frustration on the users part (as I’ve experienced with the official Twitter application on iOS 4.0), or worse dissuade a user from purchasing any other applications bearing your name.

In this example, when an exception occurs, we’ll ensure that we navigate to an error page, and display the stack trace. Aside, this is obviously not the best thing to display to an end user. The best approach may be to display a generic error message with an option to report the error, which then emails the exception information to your support address. I leave that as an exercise to the reader, in this example, we’ll just display the stack trace information directly to the user:

1. Add a new Windows Phone Portrait Page to your Windows Phone 7 project in Visual Studio. For the purpose of this example, I’ve named the page ‘Error.xaml’.

2. In ‘Error.xaml’, locate the ‘LayoutRoot’ Grid element, and replace its content with the following:

3. The page you created above will act as the container for any exceptions that we need to display. Next, open up ‘Error.xaml.cs’, and add the following code:

using System.Windows.Navigation;

public static Exception Exception;

// Executes when the user navigates to this page.
protected override void OnNavigatedTo(NavigationEventArgs e)
ErrorText.Text = Exception.ToString();

This sets up an Exception Object that is hooked up to ErrorText.Text upon navigating to the page.

4. Finally, we need to hook up an event handler that ensures that we navigate to this page whenever an unhandled exception occurs. This is done from ‘App.xaml.cs’. Open up ‘App.xaml.cs’, and replace the content of the ‘Application_UnhandledException’ function with the following code:

if (System.Diagnostics.Debugger.IsAttached)
// An unhandled exception has occurred; break in the debugger

// Running on a device / emulator without debugging
e.Handled = true;
Error.Exception = e.ExceptionObject;
(RootVisual as Microsoft.Phone.Controls.PhoneApplicationFrame).Source =
new Uri("/Error.xaml", UriKind.Relative);

If you have completed the above steps correctly, then whenever an unhandled exception occurs in your application, the application will navigate to this page, and display the exception stack trace.

To verify these steps, add a button to your ‘MainPage.xaml’ and have it link to a page that doesn’t exist, e.g.

NavigationService.Navigate(new Uri("/NotHere.xaml", UriKind.Relative));

Launch the application in the emulator, and click the button you just created, (You’ll need to launch without debugging). The result should be navigation to ‘Error.xaml’ with the exception details:

Windows Phone Error Example

WPF – Binding Data in an XML file to a ComboBox

Some things in WPF are very different from Windows Forms programming. Lately, I’ve been working on my first real UI in which I’ve used WPF over Windows Forms. Using XAML takes a little bit of getting used to, but I’m finding that I have a lot more control over the UI, along with the obvious advantage of seperating the UI presentation from the actual application logic.

Just the other day I needed to create a ComboBox control on a section of my UI, the items in which would need to be loaded from an XML file at runtime. The XML file was to be included as a resource.

The XML file looked something like this:


I wanted the ‘name’ attribute from each Language node to be bound to my ComboBox. In order to do this, first we need to define the XML file as a resource in our XAML:


Then, we just need to add the ItemsSource, SelectedValuePath, and DisplayMemberPath to the ComboBox XAML, specifying the resource we declared earlier, and the attribute that we want to bind:

Note the ‘SelectedItem’ can be set as well from the XAML, It’s set to ‘Arabic’ in the above example.

SharpSVN: A Gentle Introduction

SharpSVN is a really useful library which encapsulates the functionality of the Subversion client so we can leverage it programmatically from .NET applications. I can think of many uses for this. In the past, in some of the automation frameworks I’ve worked with, updating the source code from SVN has been a manual task ran weekly. Using SharpSVN, we could write a simple console application to accomplish this. It could also be useful to automate repetitive SVN tasks in a development environment.

In this post, I’m going to outline the basics of using SharpSVN, and in the process create a simple C# console application to check-out some source code.

For starters, we’ll need to download the SharpSVN package from here. Next, create a C# console application in Visual Studio. You’ll need to target .NET 2.0.

Unzip the SharpSVN package, and add ‘SharpSVN.dll’ as a reference to your console application. Next, add the following code. We’ll pass the location we want to check-out from as an argument to the application:

string Repository = string.Empty;

if (args.Length != 1)
Console.WriteLine("Usage: SharpSVN ");
Repository = args[0];

I’m assuming here that you’re already authenticated with your SVN server. Now the code to actually perform the check-out, which is really simple:

using (SvnClient client = new SvnClient())
SvnUriTarget target = new SvnUriTarget(Repository);

if (client.CheckOut(target, @"C:\Working"))
Console.WriteLine("Successfully checked out '" + Repository + @"' to 'C:\Working'");

catch(Exception e)
Console.WriteLine("Error occurred during check out: " + e.ToString());

That’s it. The above code will check-out the source code from the SVN repository you passed as an argument to ‘C:\Working’.

The only downside I’ve seen with SharpSVN, is that it only seems to work when I target .NET 2.0. Maybe I could download the source and try to compile it under .NET 4.0, but I haven’t tried that.

I see huge usage for this library in future projects, and it’s certainly better that a previous solution I had implemented using the command line interface to the TortoiseSVN client.

Happy Coding…